From the Pacific

Key Nutrition and Health articles from around the Pacific Islands - you can find more by using key words such as 'nutrition', 'diet', 'health', 'fruit' and 'fish' on pubmed.gov 

World Health Organisation STEPS Survey Results

The World Health Organisations (WHO) STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) is a simple, standadized method for collecting, analysing and disseminating Health data for WHO member countries. For most countries STEP surveys provide the most up to date information on health behaviours and conditions in relation to Non-Communicable Diseases.

You can now map many of the STEPS Survey Results at SPC's. National Minimum Development Indicators Site, here.

 

American Samoa 2004

American Samoa 2004 STEPS Results

  • 47.3% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 93.5% are overweight or obese
  • 86.7% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Cook Islands 2003 4

Cook Islands 2003-2004 STEPS Results

  • 23.6% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 88.5% are overweight or obese
  • 81.8% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Fiji Islands 2002

Fiji Islands 2002 STEPS Results

  • 29.6% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 66.9% are overweight or obese
  • 85% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day

2011 Steps Results Coming Soon!

French Polynesia 2010 

French Polynesia 2010 STEPS Results

  • 7.3% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 69.9% are overweight or obese
  • 87.3% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Kiribati 2004 6 

Kiribati 2004-06 STEPS Results

  • 20.4% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 72.4% are overweight or obese
  • 99.5% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Marshall Islands 2002

Marshall Islands 2002 STEPS Results

  • 29.8% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 62.5% are overweight or obese
  • 91.0% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
FSM 2002 

FSM 2002 and 2006 STEPS Results

  • 35.4% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 62.6% are overweight or obese
  • 90.4% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Nauru 2004 

Nauru 2004 STEPS Results

  • 16.2% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 82.8% are overweight or obese
  • 96.9% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Niue 2011

Niue 2011 STEPS Results

  • 38.4% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 85.9% are overweight or obese
  • 92.9% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
PNG 2007 8

Papua New Guinea 2007-08 STEPS Results

  • 14.4% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 32.1% are overweight or obese
  • 98.9% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Samoa 2012 

Samoa 2012 STEPS Results

  • 22.1% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 85.2% are overweight or obese
  • 37.7% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day 2013 Results Coming Soon
Solomon Islands 2006

Solomon Islands 2006 STEPS Results

  • 17.7% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 55.2% are overweight or obese
  • 93.1% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Tokelau 2005

Tokelau 2005 STEPS Results

  • 33.6% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 86.2% are overweight or obese
  • 92.3% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Tonga 2004

Tonga 2004 STEPS Results

  • 13.5% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 84.1% are overweight or obese
  • 92.8% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/vegetables a day
Vanuatu 2011

Vanuatu 2011 STEPS Results

  • 21.2% of the adult population show raised fasting blood glucose levels
  • 50.9% are overweight or obese
  • 61.8% consume less than 5 serving of fruit/veget

 

 


Global Burden of Disease

The WHO's 2010 global burden of disease (GBD) study measures burden of disease using the disability-adjusted-life-year (DALY). This time-based measure combines years of life lost due to premature mortality and years of life lost due to time lived in states of less than full health. The Study measures the burden of disease consistently across diseases, risk factors and regions. For Pacific Islands involved in the study, country profiles can be found below:

FIJI
FSM
KIRIBATI
MARSHALL ISLANDS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
SAMOA
SOLOMON ISLANDS
TONGA
VANUATU
Global Burden Disease Graph

International

Key Nutrition research from around the globe.

World Cancer Research Fund Report on Diet and Cancer

WCRF/AICR's Second Expert Report, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, published in 2007, sets out Recommendations for Cancer Prevention based on a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence in this area.. You can access the full report, updated evidence and resulting public health recommendations by clicking here.

Cancer Graph

Key Articles

Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities - TROPIC Project.

Mavoa H, Waqa G, Moodie M et al.

The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project: project overview and methods.

Swinburn BA, Millar L, Utter J, Kremer P

Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa.
Land MA, Webster JL, Ma G, Li M, Su'a SA, Ieremia M, Viali S, Faeamani G, Bell AC, Quested C, Neal BC, Eastman CJ. 2016.

Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.
Charlton KE, Russell J, Gorman E, Hanich Q, Delisle A, Campbell B, Bell J. 2016 

Breastfeeding in Samoa: A Study to Explore Women's Knowledge and the Factors which Influence Infant Feeding Practices.
Archer LE, Dunne TF, Lock LJ, Price LA, Ahmed Z. 2017. 

Continued increases in hypertension over three decades in Fiji, and the influence of obesity.
Linhart C, Tukana I, Lin S, Taylor R, Morrell S, Vatucawaqa P, Magliano D, Zimmet P. 2016. 

Factors influencing fruit and vegetable intake among urban Fijians: A qualitative study.
Morgan EH, Vatucawaqa P, Snowdon W, Worsley A, Dangour AD, Lock K. 2016. 

Counting the Cost of Diabetes in the Solomon Islands and Nauru.
Tin ST, Iro G, Gadabu E, Colagiuri R. 2015.

The seafood-nutrition-health paradigm of South Pacific islanders.
Kronen M, Snowdon W, Schultz JT. 2004 

Patterns of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity during health transition in Vanuatu.
Dancause KN, Vilar M, Chan C, DeHuff C, Wilson M, Soloway LE, Tarivonda L, Regenvanu R, Kaneko A, Garruto RM, Lum JK. 2012. 

Behavioral changes associated with economic development in the South Pacific: health transition in Vanuatu.
Dancause KN, Dehuff C, Soloway LE, Vilar M, Chan C, Wilson M, Tarivonda L, Regenvanu R, Kaneko A, Garruto RM, Lum JK. 2011.

Iodine nutritional status of children on the island of Tanna, Republic of Vanuatu.
Li M, McKelleher N, Moses T, Mark J, Byth K, Ma G, Eastman CJ. 2009. 

Evidence-informed process to identify policies that will promote a healthy food environment in the Pacific Islands.
Snowdon W, Lawrence M, Schultz J, Vivili P, Swinburn B. 2010 

Energy and nutrient intake of Tongan adults estimated by 24-hour recall: the importance of local food items.
Konishi S, Watanabe C, Umezaki M, Ohtsuka R. 2011.

Sugar-sweetened beverages in Pacific Island countries and territories: problems and solutions?
Snowden W. 2014.

How Can We Strengthen Governance of Non-communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries and Territories?
Magnusson RS & Patterson D. 2015.

Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia).
Morin E, Gatti C, Bambridge T, Chinain M. 2016.

Systematic Review of Prevalence of Young Child Overweight and Obesity in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Region Compared With the 48 Contiguous States: The Children's Healthy Living Program.
Novotny R, Fialkowski MK, Li F, Paulino Y, Vargo D, Jim R, Coleman P, Bersamin A, Nigg CR, Leon Guerrero RT, Deenik J, Kim JH, Wilkens LR. 2015.

Ability of body mass index and waist circumference to identify risk factors for non-communicable disease in thePacific Islands.
Snowdon W, Malakellis M, Millar L et al.

A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.
Friel S, Gleeson D, Thow AM et al. 2013.

Sizing the association between lifestyle behaviours and fatness in a large, heterogeneous sample of youth of multiple ethnicities from 4 countries.
Sluyter J, Scragg R, Plank L et al. 2013.

Adolescent dietary patterns in Fiji and their relationships with standardized body mass index.
Wate JT, Snowdon W, Millar L, et al. 2013

Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands
Snowdon W, Raj A, Reeve E, et al. 2013.

‘Junk Food’ Advertising to Children and Adolescents in Fiji.
Silvia Hope. 2010

Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.
Snowdon W, Thow AM. 2013

Pacific issues of biodiversity, health and nutrition.
Englberger L, Lorens A, Guarino L, et al. 2007.

Building an economic case for food interventions in the Pacific.
Snowdon W1, Negin J, Moodie M. 2010.

An evaluation of a nutrition intervention in Kapinga Village on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.
Hanson M1, Englberger L, Duncan B et al. 2011.

Is kava alcohol?: The myths and the facts.
Aporosa SA. 2011.

Nutritionally acquired immune deficiency syndromes (NAIDS): common but often not diagnosed early.
Rodgers E. 2011.

Body image and its relation to obesity for Pacific minority ethnic groups in New Zealand: a critical analysis.
Teevale T. 2011.

Pohnpei, FSM case study in a global health project documents its local food resources and successfully promotes local food for health.
Englberger L, Kuhnlein HV, Lorens A et al. 2010.

Evaluation of a "traditional food for health" intervention in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.
Kaufer L, Englberger L, Cue R. 2010.

Health promoting behavior among chronically ill Pacificans living with non-communicable disease in Fiji, Nauru, and Kiribati.
Szmedra P1, Sharma KL, Rozmus CL. 2009.

A double-blind clinical safety study of noni fruit juice.
West BJ1, White LD, Jensen CJ, Palu AK. 2009.

Oral carcinoma associated with betel nut chewing in the Pacific: an impending crisis?
Carpenter JM1, Syms MJ, Sniezek JC. 2005.

The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of five commonly consumed foods of the South Pacific.
Lako J, Sotheeswaran S, Aalbersberg W, Sreekumar KP. 2004.

Dietary trend and diabetes: its association among indigenous Fijians 1952 to 1994.
Lako JV. 2001.

Phytochemical intakes of the Fijian population.
Lako J1, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Wahlqvist M, Trenerry C. 2006

The seafood-nutrition-health paradigm of South Pacific islanders.
Kronen M1, Snowdon W, Schultz JT. 2004.

The voyage to McDonalds--short and long-term factors in the etiology of obesity in Mäori children in Aotearoa.
Gray G. 2003.

Kava consumption and its health effects.
Gounder R. 2006.

Sociocultural factors influencing the food choices of 16-18 year-old indigenous Fijian females at school.
Waqa G, Mavoa H. 2006.

Towards prevention of breast cancer in the Pacific: influence of diet and lifestyle.
Afolabi IR. 2007.

A pilot food store intervention in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
Gittelsohn J, Dyckman W, Frick KD et al. 2007.

Dietary intake in infants and young children in the Marshall Islands.
Gammino VM1, Gittelsohn J, Langidrik JR. 2007.

Uli'eo Koa Program: incorporating a traditional Hawaiian dietary component.
Leslie JH. 2001.

Vitamin A deficiency in the South Pacific.
Schaumberg DA, Linehan M, Hawley G et al. 1995.

Vitamin A deficiency and inflammatory markers among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Maqsood M, Dancheck B, Gamble MV, et al. 2003.

Iodine nutritional status of children on the island of Tanna, Republic of Vanuatu.
Li M, McKelleher N, Moses T et al. 2009.

Nutritional Problems among Pacific Island Children
Jane H Paterson. 1994.

Undernutrition in Pacific Island Countries: an issue requiring further attention
Grieve H, Busch-Hallen J, Mellor K. 2013.

The contribution of feeding mode to obesogenic growth trajectories in American Samoan infants.
Hawley NL, Johnson W, Nu'usolia O, McGarvey ST. 2014.